As we move forward from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles, there are many new words, phrases and acronyms for everyone to learn and understand. There are also a very large range of accessories used to charge electric vehicles, below is a introduction that will help you with getting to know the new technology.
EV - Electric Vehicle
BEV - Battery Powered Electric Vehicle
PEV - Plug-in Electric Vehicle
PHEV - Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
ICE - Internal Combustion Engine eg: petrol or diesel
EVSE - Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
J1772 - Type 1 charging usually at 16amp or 32amp
IEC62196 - Type 2 Mennekes charging usually at 16 or 32amp
CHAdeMO - DC Charging System used for Rapid Charging
Slow Charge - Usually 10amp or 16amp (3.6kW) charging
Fast Charge - Usually 32amp (7.2kW) or 32amp 3Phase(22kW)
Rapid Charge - Direct Current (DC) Charging usually 43kW AC or 50kW DC
kW - Kilowatt, a unit for measuring power
kWh - Kilowatt hour, a unit for measuring energy
AC TYPE PLUGS
Also known as: J1772, SAE J1772
This plug is used for single phase charging.
240V AC up to 32amp 7.6kW.
It is used as the standard plug type for Japan and North America
Also known as: IEC 62196, Mennekes
This plug is used for single and three phase charging.
240V AC up to 32amp 7.6kW
415V AC up to 32amp 22kW
It is used as the standard plug type for Europe
DC RAPID CHARGING PLUGS
Abbreviated from CHArge de MOve
This plug is used for DC rapid charging only. It is used by Japanese car manufactures
Combined Charging System also called Combo Coupler
This plug is a combination of the type 2 plug with 2 extra contacts for DC rapid charging.
TYPES OF CHARGERS
The level 1 charger is small and portable, so you can plug it into commonly found power point either at home or at the workplace. The power outlet you wish to plug into must be protected by a residual current device (RCD, safety switch) for protection against electric shock in fault conditions. These are best suited for people that drive very few kilometres or/and don't have access to power where they park their car at home.
Charging is supplied via a dedicated plug hard wired back to a switchboard using specific cable capable of carrying higher currents (Amps) and voltages, charging your vehicle in a shorter time than level 1 charging. By using this type of charger it will give you more kilometres per hour of charge which increases the usability of your vehicle and saves you time in waiting for the battery to charge. the level 2 chargers cost more to purchase and have installed, but the advantages make it a worthwhile investment.
Rapid charging from dedicated DC supply equipment. These are not what you would install in domestic situation due to the cost of the supply equipment and the demand on the electrical supply to the property. They are most suited for side of road service centres and fleet charging where there is a high turnover of vehicles charging or charging time is critical to business operation.
Charging times will vary from vehicle to vehicle due to contributing factors such as, the size of the vehicle's on-board charger and the size of the vehicle's battery to be charged. The kW level you select will have an effect on your charging times.
Level 1, 3kW portable charger will approximately charge a vehicle in 6-12 hours.
Level 2, Fast charger 7kW-22kW 2-6 hours.
Level 3, Rapid charge 50kW DC 20-60 minutes
One of the most important factors when purchasing a new vehicle is the running costs. The great news is the running costs for electric vehicles is significantly lower than petrol/diesel vehicles in fuel and servicing costs.
This is how to work out your costings for fuelling your vehicle.
You first need to find out what you pay per kWh for your electricity, you will find this on your electricity bill, likely to be about $0.24 per kWh. Now you need to look at the battery size of the electric vehicle you intend to charge. For this example we will choose the Jaguar I-Pace with a battery size of 90kWh and a range of 470km.
The cost to charge a Jaguar I-Pace is 0.24 x 90 = $21.60
From this equation we can work out the cost per km by dividing the charging cost of $25.20 by the range of 470km, 21.60 / 470 = $0.0459 per km.
0.0459 x 100 = $4.59 per 100km.
You can use this example for any electric vehicle to find out your charging and per kilometre travel cost.